Application of molecular markers in plant sciences; An overview

Document Type : Review paper


Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


Recent advances in cellular and molecular genetics have raised new hopes among breeders, including the development of a variety of molecular markers. There are several types of markers, including morphological, molecular, and cytological markers. Molecular markers are one of the most powerful tools for studying genetic diversity. They are used in the study of phylogenetic relationships, selection of superior plants, and the study of similarities or differences between different specimens. Molecular markers are also used in germplasm management and marker-assisted selection (MAS) to increase the efficiency of germplasm breeding. Among molecular markers, DNA-based markers are of particular importance because of the limitations of morphological and isozyme markers. DNA markers are valuable tools in plant sciences. These markers do not have the problems of morphological markers and allow efficient comparisons to distinguish between very similar organisms. These markers are commonly used to assess genetic variation in agronomic germplasm, analyse population structure, localise quantitative traits (QTL), or linkage mapping for gene mapping. The increasing development of new and specific types of markers demonstrates their importance for understanding genomic diversity and diversity between similar species as well as between different plant species. In this review, we will discuss the types of markers, their advantages and disadvantages, and their applications in plant science.

Graphical Abstract

Application of molecular markers in plant sciences; An overview


  • Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the use of DNA markers.
  • Molecular markers are not affected by plant growth conditions and stages and do not change due to environmental conditions, and with greater accuracy, speed and sensitivity, they reveal a large number of distinct differences between genotypes at the DNA level.
  • While DNA marker technology cannot replace plant breeding, it certainly increases the effort of breeders by providing new tools.


Main Subjects

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