Application of molecular markers in plant sciences; An overview

Document Type : Review paper

Author

Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

10.22034/CAJPSI.2021.04.02

Abstract

Recent advances in cellular and molecular genetics have raised new hopes in breeders, including the development of a variety of molecular markers. There are several types of markers, including morphological, molecular, and cytological markers. Molecular markers are one of the most powerful tools for studying genetic diversity. They are used in the investigation of phylogenetic relationships, selection of superior plants, and examination of similarities or differences between various specimens. Molecular markers are also used in germplasm management and marker-assisted selection (MAS) to enhance germplasm breeding efficiency. Among the molecular markers, DNA-based markers are of particular significance due to the limitations of morphological and isozyme markers. DNA markers are valuable tools in the plant sciences. These markers do not have the problems of morphological markers and allow efficient comparisons to distinguish between very close organisms. These markers are commonly used to evaluate genetic variation in agronomic germplasm, population structure analysis, quantitative trait location (QTL), or linkage mapping for mapping genes. The increasing development of new and specific types of markers reveals their importance in understanding the genomic diversity and diversity between similar species as well as different plant species. In this review, we will discuss the types of markers, their advantages, disadvantages and their application in plant science.

Graphical Abstract

Application of molecular markers in plant sciences; An overview

Highlights

  • Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the use of DNA markers.
  • Molecular markers are not affected by plant growth conditions and stages and do not change due to environmental conditions, and with greater accuracy, speed and sensitivity, they reveal a large number of distinct differences between genotypes at the DNA level.
  • While DNA marker technology cannot replace plant breeding, it certainly increases the effort of breeders by providing new tools.

Keywords

Main Subjects


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