Effect of Sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of three maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes in Takhar climatic conditions of Afghanistan

Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture, Samangan University, Afghanistan

2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Samangan University, Afghanistan


Crops are the main source of human food supply and among them, grains are more important, among cereals, corn (Zea mays L.) is an important crop due to its high grain and forage yield potential. The research experiment was conducted on maize to find out the effect of different sowing dates and plant density among three genotypes on the performance of maize, in the spring of the 2020 growing season in the Bagh-e-Zakhirah Research Farm of Takhar province Afghanistan. The experiment was laid out as a split-plot factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Three planting dates (May 5, May 21, and June 5) as the main factor, three plant densities of 6.5, 8, and 10 plants/m2, and three genotypes, SC260, SC600, and SC302 were considered as sub-factors. All treatments sowing date, plant density, genotype, and only interaction effect of sowing date × plant density showed significantly different effects (p < 0.01) on yield and yield components. The results of the present investigation revealed that the highest grain yield 6.99 ton/h was obtained from the sowing date (May 5) and plant density of 6.5 plants/m2 and the lowest grain yield 6.21 ton/h was obtained from the sowing date (June 5) and plant density of 10 plants/m2. In general, the results showed that the sowing on the 5th of May is superior to the 5th of June in terms of grain yield and yield components, and among the three corn genotypes, the SC260 genotype is more batter than the SC600 and SC302 genotypes under the environment condition. Therefore considering all results the first week of May as the sowing date and 65000 plants/h with SC260 genotype could be recommended to the maize grower for the most effective for producing maize.

Graphical Abstract

Effect of Sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of three maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes in Takhar climatic conditions of Afghanistan


  • The highest corn grain yield was obtained from the sowing date (May 5) and plant density of 6.5 plants/m2.
  • The lowest grain yield was obtained from the sowing date (June 5) and the plant density of 10 plants/m2.
  • The sowing on the May 5 is superior to June 5 in terms of grain yield and yield components.
  • Among the three corn genotypes, the SC260 genotype is better than the SC600 and SC302 genotypes under the environmental condition.


Main Subjects

Afzal, M.N., Tariq, M., Ahmed, M., Abbas, G., Mehmood, Z., 2020. Managing planting time for cotton production. Cotton Prod. Uses, 31-44.
Alam, M.J., Ahmed, K.S., Nahar, M.K., Akter, S., Uddin, M.A., 2020. Effect of different sowing dates on the performance of maize. J Krishi Vigyan, 8(2), 75-81.
Assefa, Y., Carter, P., Hinds, M., Bhalla, G., Schon, R., Jeschke, M., Paszkiewicz, S., Smith, S., Ciampitti, I.A., 2018. Analysis of long term study indicates both agronomic optimal plant density and increase maize yield per plant contributed to yield gain. Sci. Rep., 8(1), 1-11.
Babaee, M.A., Biglouei, M.H., Pirmoradian, N., 2017. Combined Effects of Water Stress and Salinity Stress on Yield Quantity and Quality of Grain Maize Varieties ksc-260. Irrig. Sci. Eng., 40(3), 49-61. [In Persian]
Baum, M.E., Archontoulis, S.V., Licht, M.A., 2019. Planting date, hybrid maturity, and weather effects on maize yield and crop stage. Agron. J., 111(1), 303-313.
Beiragi, M.A., Khorasani, S.K., Shojaei, S.H., Dadresan, M., Mostafavi, K., Golbashy, M., 2011. A study on effects of planting dates on growth and yield of 18 corn hybrids (Zea mays L.). J. Exp. Agric. Int., 110-120.
Bhandari, B., Shrestha, J., Tripathi, M.P., 2018. Productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) as affected by varieties and sowing dates. Int. J. Appl. Biol., 2(2), 13-19.
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF    Mendeley    
Buriro, M., Bhutto, T.A., Gandahi, A.W., Kumbhar, I.A., Shar, M.U., 2015. Effect of sowing dates on growth, yield and grain quality of hybrid maize. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 11, 553-558.
CAO, Y.J., WANG, L.C., GU, W.R., WANG, Y.J., ZHANG, J.H., 2021. Increasing photosynthetic performance and post-silking N uptake by moderate decreasing leaf source of maize under high planting density. J. Integr. Agric., 20(2), 494-510.
Chisanga, C.B., Phiri, E., Chinene, V.R., 2019. Evaluation of sowing date and fertilization with nitrogen in maize cultivars in rainy conditions in Zambia. Afr. J. Plant Sci., 13(8), 221-230.
Kamara, A.Y., Ekeleme, F., Chikoye, D., Omoigui, L.O., 2009. Planting date and cultivar effects on grain yield in dryland corn production. Agron. J., 101(1), 91-98.
Koca, Y.O., Canavar, O. 2014. The effect of sowing date on yield and yield components and seed quality of corn (Zea mays L.). Sci. Papers Series Agron., 57, 227-223.
Li, J., Xie, R.Z., Wang, K.R., Ming, B., Guo, Y.Q., Zhang, G.Q., Li, S.K., 2015. Variations in maize dry matter, harvest index, and grain yield with plant density. Agron. J., 107(3), 829-834.
Li, Z., Zhang, X., Zhao, Y., Li, Y., Zhang, G., Peng, Z., Zhang, J., 2018. Enhancing auxin accumulation in maize root tips improves root growth and dwarfs plant height. Plant Biotechnol. J., 16(1), 86-99.
Moradi, H., Akbari, G.A., Khorasani, S.K., Ramshini, H.A., 2012. Evaluation of drought tolerance in corn (Zea mays L.) new hybrids with using stress tolerance indices. Eur. J. Sustain. Dev., 1(3), 543-543.
Poorebrahimi, M., Sirousmehr, A., Eshghizadeh, H., Asgharipour, M., Khamari, I., 2018. Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and agronomic characteristics of different corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Isfahan Univ. Technol. J. Crop Prod. Proc., 8(3), 37-49. (In Persian)
Qian, C., Yu, Y., Gong, X., Jiang, Y., Zhao, Y., Yang, Z., Hao, Y., Li, L., Song, Z., Zhang, W., 2016. Response of grain yield to plant density and nitrogen rate in spring maize hybrids released from 1970 to 2010 in Northeast China. Crop J., 4(6), 459-467.
Rahmani, A., Alhossini, M.N., Khorasani, S.K. 2016. Effect of Planting Date and Plant Densities on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. var saccharata). J. Exp. Agric. Int., 10, 1-9.
Shakarami, G., Rafiee, M., 2009. Response of corn (Zea mays L.) to planting pattern and density in Iran. Agric. J. Environ. Sci., 5(1), 69-73.
Sharifi, R.S., Sedghi, M., Gholipouri, A., 2009. Effect of population density on yield and yield attributes of maize hybrids. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(4), 375-379.
Shrestha, J., Yadav, D.N., Amgain, L.P., Sharma, J.P. 2018. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on maize (Zea mays L.) phenology and grain yield. Curr. Agric. Res. J., 6(2), 175-182.