Study flora and distribution of weed (Case Study: fruit orchards of Darreh Shahr city, Ilam Province of Iran)

Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University

3 Department of Agronomy, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran


Weed management is one of the most critical challenges facing farmers. By identifying the weed flora and determining the status, abundance, and distribution of weed species, important information can be obtained for designing weed management programs. Based on this and also due to the lack of enough information about the weed status of orchards in Darreh Shahr city, this study was designed to compare the flora and determine the distribution of weeds in olive, grape, and citrus orchards in 2018. Sampling in each garden was based on the W pattern with a 50 x 50 cm square. The result showed that among the 37 species of herbaceous plants observed in vineyards, the average density for wild weeds was about 1.8 plants/m2. Among the 42 species of herbaceous plants observed in the olive orchards, the average density of wild lettuce was about 2.4 plants/m2. Among the 40 common herbaceous species in citrus orchards, the highest level of uniformity of distribution (30%) was assigned to perennial grasshoppers. Shannon Wiener's index in olive, Citrus, and grape orchards were 3.01, 2.93, and 2.95, respectively. The area under cultivation and management are the most critical factors in determining the diversity and dominance of species in orchards. In general, research results show that weed density is high in Darreh Shahr gardens, so weed management methods should be improved to control weeds. Also, the structure of weeds in city gardens is different, and this can be useful in management planning to control weeds.

Graphical Abstract

Study flora and distribution of weed (Case Study: fruit orchards of Darreh Shahr city, Ilam Province of Iran)


  • Identifying and Distribution of Weed Species Important information can be obtained for designing weed management programs.
  • One of the most important factors affecting the success of crops and orchards is the distribution of weeds and their propagation power.
  • Areas with higher diversity indices had higher uniformity and species richness indices.
  • Weed management is one of the most important challenges for farmers.


Main Subjects

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